If you choose to activate Throttle connections, failed login attempts will cause the next login attempts from the same connection to have to wait x seconds before being able to attempt to login.
If Ban IP is on, with the default settings it will cause the connecting IP to get banned after 5 failed attempts within 45 seconds.
If you enable Always allow connections to ProVide you can enter IP adresses which will always be allowed to connected and wont be able to be banned.
Putting a date on the rule
This can be done in all three fields. Simply enter IP / Date / Clock like this 10.2.0.73 2020-10-22 14:10. Entering this into the Always allow connections field as an example, would make 10.2.0.73 immune to being banned until 2020-10-22 14:10. You can do this on each IP, allowing you to set different dates for each one.